Thursday, April 30, 2009

What is the difference between Cc and Bcc?

What is the difference between Cc and Bcc?

Cc stands for carbon copy which means that whose address appears after the Cc: header would receive a copy of the message. Also, the Cc header would also appear inside the header of the received message.

Bcc stands for blind carbon copy which is similar to that of Cc except that the Email address of the recipients specified in this field do not appear in the received message header and the recipients in the To or Cc fields will not know that a copy sent to these address.


Monday, April 27, 2009



Monday, April 20, 2009

Increase Swap Memory in Linux


Linux Free Command
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The Linux Free Command
Getting started

The linux free command allows us to check free/used memory on the system The output below is the result of running free -m on my system (-m means output is in MB):

total used free shared buffers cached
Mem: 3856 1121 2735 0 17 180
-/+ buffers/cache: 923 2933
Swap: 2533 1044 1489

Output explained

The first line starting with Mem: gives us the following information:

* total - is the total avaialble RAM (== Physical Memory) after subtracting the amount used by the kernel! In my case I have 4GB RAM and the total displays less than this.
* used - is the part of the RAM that currently has information in it that can be of use to the system (remember: unused RAM is useless, try to maximise this value)
* free - is just total-used
* shared - is the amount of memory shared between processes
* buffers and cached - the cached data and buffers for IO

The second line starting with -/+ buffers/cache: tells us how much of the memory in the buffers/cache is used by the applications and how much is free. Keep in mind that in general the cache is filled with disk IO cached data. The cache can be very easily reclaimed by the OS for applications. Let BUFFERS + CACHED from first line be value X.

X subtracted from the USED memory from the first line gives how much RAM is used by applications (USED value on second line)

X added to the FREE memory on the first line gives how much RAM applications can still request from the OS.

While the first line handles the values of currently used RAM, including applications and caches (but excluding kernel), the second line gives info on application related memory: how much is currently in use and how much is there still available for the applications.

Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Not able to open drives on hard disk by double click

Not able to open drives on hard disk by double click
Posted by abhishek in computer problems, how to fix, virus problems, windows

Tags: autorun.inf, drive-not-opening, drive-not-opening-on-double-click




Sometimes it happens in windows XP that you are not able to open drives on your hard disk. When you double clicking on the drives icons or right click on the drive>>explore in My computer ,the drive does not open.

This problem is generally caused by most of the viruses which infect windows XP system. They block or restrict your access to any of the drives.

But don’t worry this is not a big trouble it can be fixed easily.


Normally when a virus infects a windows system which causes a drive opening problem, it automatically creates a file named autorun.inf in the root directory of each drive.

This autorun.inf file is a read only ,hidden and a system file and the folder option is also disabled by the virus. This is deliberately done by the virus in order to protect itself. autorun.inf initiates all the activities that the virus performs when you try to open any drive.

You have to just delete this file and restart your system to correct this problem.

Follow the set of commands below to show and delete the autorun.inf

1. Open Start>>Run and type cmd and press enter. This will open a command prompt window. On this command prompt window type the following steps.

2. type cd\

3. type attrib -r -h -s autorun.inf

4. type del autorun.inf

5. now type d: and press enter for d: drive partition. Now repeat steps 3 and 4. Similarly repeat step 5 for all your hard disk partition.

Restart your system and your trouble will be fixed.

Technorati Tags: virus,drive-not-opening,folder-option-disabled,autorun.inf

Note: For all those who are not able to correct this problem, after following the above procedure can use a tool called Ravmon Virus Killer designed by Muhammad Abdullah, download it from here

Arabic font for PDF from iReport


RE:arabic font for PDF from iReport 11/04/2009 07:55 PM

this is the solution for the arabic font in reports

go to this web sit and see

the method is

1- download the Arial.ttf font

2- put it in the folder of iReport/fonts

3- in iReport hit reload fonts from the options menu

4- choose the arial font for pdf font for the text you want

5- follow the instructions in the above link

6- copy the arial font to Tomcat webapps in context name folder in WEB-INF/CLASSES

7- refresh opebravo

thats all